The Role of Mineral and Trace Element Supplementation in Exercise and Athletic Performance: A Systematic Review. Shane Michael Heffernan, Katy Horner, Giuseppe De Vito, and Gillian Eileen Conway. Nutrients. 2019 Mar; 11(3): 696.



Magnesium supplementation improves indicators of low magnesium status and inflammatory stress in adults older than 51 years with poor quality sleep. Nielsen FH, Johnson LK, Zeng H. Magnes Res. 2010 Dec;23(4):158-68. doi: 10.1684/mrh.2010.0220. Epub 2011 Jan 4.

Magnesium potentiation of the function of native and recombinant GABA(A) receptors. Möykkynen T, Uusi-Oukari M, Heikkilä J, Lovinger DM, Lüddens H, Korpi ER. Neuroreport. 2001 Jul 20;12(10):2175-9.

Oral Mg(2+) supplementation reverses age-related neuroendocrine and sleep EEG changes in humans. Held K, Antonijevic IA, Künzel H, Uhr M, Wetter TC, Golly IC, Steiger A, Murck H. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2002 Jul;35(4):135-43.

Magnesium deficiency induces anxiety and HPA axis dysregulation: Modulation by therapeutic drug treatment. S.B. Sartori, N. Whittle, A. Hetzenauer, and N. Singewald. Neuropharmacology. 2012 Jan; 62(1): 304–312.

Magnesium Therapy for Periodic Leg Movements-related Insomnia and Restless Legs Syndrome: An Open Pilot Study. Magdolna Hornyak, Ulrich Voderholzer, Fritz Hohagen, Mathias Berger, Dieter Riemann. Sleep, Volume 21, Issue 5, August 1998, Pages 501–505.

Can Magnesium Enhance Exercise Performance? Yijia Zhang, Pengcheng Xun, Ru Wang, Lijuan Mao, and Ka He. Nutrients. 2017 Sep; 9(9): 946.

Impact of Magnesium Supplementation in Muscle Damage of Professional Cyclists Competing in a Stage Race. Alfredo Córdova, Juan Mielgo-Ayuso, Enrique Roche, Alberto Caballero-García, and Diego Fernandez-Lázaro. Nutrients. 2019 Aug; 11(8): 1927.

Effect of magnesium supplementation on strength training in humans. Brilla LR, Haley TF. J Am Coll Nutr. 1992 Jun;11(3):326-9.

Magnesium and the Athlete. Volpe SL. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2015 Jul-Aug;14(4):279-83.

Dietary Magnesium Is Positively Associated With Skeletal Muscle Power and Indices of Muscle Mass and May Attenuate the Association Between Circulating C-Reactive Protein and Muscle Mass in Women. Welch AA, Kelaiditi E, Jennings A, Steves CJ, Spector TD, MacGregor A. J Bone Miner Res. 2016 Feb;31(2):317-25.

Dietary Magnesium May Be Protective for Aging of Bone and Skeletal Muscle in Middle and Younger Older Age Men and Women: Cross-Sectional Findings from the UK Biobank Cohort. Welch AA, Skinner J, Hickson M. Proc Nutr Soc. 2012 Feb;71(1):112-9.

Effects of magnesium supplementation on blood parameters of athletes at rest and after exercise. Cinar V, Nizamlioglu M, Mogulkoc R, Baltaci AK. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2007 Mar;115(3):205-12.

Update on the relationship between magnesium and exercise.
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Subclinical magnesium deficiency: a principal driver of cardiovascular disease and a public health crisis. James J DiNicolantonio, James H O’Keefe, and William Wilson. . 2018; 5(1): e000668.



Dietary Zinc Acts as a Sleep Modulator. Yoan Cherasse and Yoshihiro Urade. Int J Mol Sci. 2017 Nov; 18(11): 2334.

Zinc Signals and Immunity. Maywald M, Wessels I, Rink L. Int J Mol Sci. 2017 Oct 24;18(10). pii: E2222.

Zinc as a Gatekeeper of Immune Function. Wessels I, Maywald M, Rink L. Nutrients. 2017 Nov 25;9(12). pii: E1286.

Zinc and immunity: An essential interrelation. Maares M, Haase H. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2016 Dec 1;611:58-65.

Zinc status in athletes: relation to diet and exercise. Micheletti A, Rossi R, Rufini S. Sports Med. 2001;31(8):577-82.

Lower Serum Zinc Concentration Despite Higher Dietary Zinc Intake in Athletes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Chu A, Holdaway C, Varma T, Petocz P, Samman S. Sports Med. 2018 Feb;48(2):327-336.

Exercise-induced changes in immune function: effects of zinc supplementation. Singh A, Failla ML, Deuster PA. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1994 Jun;76(6):2298-303.

Effect of zinc supplementation on hematological parameters in athletes. Kilic M, Baltaci AK, Gunay M. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2004 Jul;100(1):31-8.

Effect of zinc supplementation on antioxidant activity in young wrestlers. Kara E, Gunay M, Cicioglu I, Ozal M, Kilic M, Mogulkoc R, Baltaci AK. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2010 Apr;134(1):55-63.

Zinc status and serum testosterone levels of healthy adults. Prasad AS, Mantzoros CS, Beck FW, Hess JW, Brewer GJ. Nutrition. 1996 May;12(5):344-8.

Discovery of Human Zinc Deficiency: Its Impact on Human Health and Disease. 2013 Mar; 4(2): 176–190.


Vitamin D

The lullaby of the sun: the role of vitamin D in sleep disturbance. Muscogiuri G, Barrea L, Scannapieco M, Di Somma C, Scacchi M, Aimaretti G, Savastano S, Colao A, Marzullo P. Sleep Med. 2019 Feb;54:262-265.

The world epidemic of sleep disorders is linked to vitamin D deficiency. Gominak SC, Stumpf WE. Med Hypotheses. 2012 Aug;79(2):132-5.

The Association between Vitamin D Deficiency and Sleep Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Qi Gao, Tingyan Kou, Bin Zhuang, Yangyang Ren, Xue Dong, and Qiuzhen Wang. Nutrients. 2018 Oct; 10(10): 1395.

The effect of vitamin D supplement on the score and quality of sleep in 20-50 year-old people with sleep disorders compared with control group. Majid MS, Ahmad HS, Bizhan H, Hosein HZM, Mohammad A. Nutr Neurosci. 2018 Sep;21(7):511-519.

Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in chronic insomnia patients and the association with poor treatment outcome at 2 months. Zhao K, Luan X, Liu Y, Tu X, Chen H, Shen H, Qiu H, Zhu Z, He J. Clin Chim Acta. 2017 Dec;475:147-151.

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and its association with vitamin D deficiency. Mete T, Yalcin Y, Berker D, Ciftci B, Guven SF, Topaloglu O, Yavuz HC, Guler S. J Endocrinol Invest. 2013 Oct;36(9):681-5.

Vitamin D and actigraphic sleep outcomes in older community-dwelling men: the MrOS sleep study. Massa J, Stone KL, Wei EK, Harrison SL, Barrett-Connor E, Lane NE, Paudel M, Redline S, Ancoli-Israel S, Orwoll E, Schernhammer E. Sleep. 2015 Feb 1;38(2):251-7.

The role of vitamin D in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. Kostas Archontogeorgis, Evangelia Nena, Nikolaos Papanas, and Paschalis Steiropoulos. Breathe (Sheff). 2018 Sep; 14(3): 206–215.

Vitamin D: an evidence-based review. Kulie T, Groff A, Redmer J, Hounshell J, Schrager S. J Am Board Fam Med. 2009 Nov-Dec;22(6):698-706.

High prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy and implications for health. Holick MF. Mayo Clin Proc. 2006 Mar;81(3):353-73.

Vitamin D and muscle function. Pfeifer M, Begerow B, Minne HW. Osteoporos Int. 2002 Mar;13(3):187-94.

Vitamin D and immune function. Prietl B, Treiber G, Pieber TR, Amrein K. Nutrients. 2013 Jul 5;5(7):2502-21.

Vitamin D Supplementation in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain: An Open Label, Single Arm Clinical Trial. Ghai B, Bansal D, Kanukula R, Gudala K, Sachdeva N, Dhatt SS, Kumar V. Pain Physician. 2017 Jan-Feb;20(1):E99-E105.

Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory infections: individual participant data meta-analysis. Health Technol Assess. 2019 Jan;23(2):1-44.

Maintenance Dose of Vitamin D: How Much Is Enough? J Bone Metab. 2018 Aug; 25(3): 161–164.

Assessment of vitamin D concentration in non-supplemented professional athletes and healthy adults during the winter months in the UK: implications for skeletal muscle function. J Sports Sci. 2013;31(4):344-53.

Supplemental vitamin D enhances the recovery in peak isometric force shortly after intense exercise. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2013 Dec 6;10(1):69.



Evidence for the efficacy of melatonin in the treatment of primary adult sleep disorders. Auld F, Maschauer EL, Morrison I, Skene DJ, Riha RL. Sleep Med Rev. 2017 Aug;34:10-22. 

Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Behavioral Interventions for Pediatric Insomnia. Lisa J. Meltzer, PhD, Jodi A. Mindell, PhD. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, Volume 39, Issue 8, September 2014, Pages 932–948.

Melatonin Natural Health Products and Supplements: Presence of Serotonin and Significant Variability of Melatonin Content. Erland LA, Saxena PK. J Clin Sleep Med. 2017 Feb 15;13(2):275-281.

Effects of exogenous melatonin on sleep: a meta-analysis. Brzezinskia A, Vangelb MG, Wurtman RJ, Norrie G, Zhdanova I, Ben-Shushan A, Ford I. Sleep Medicine Reviews. Volume 9, Issue 1, February 2005, Pages 41-50.

The effectiveness of melatonin for promoting healthy sleep: a rapid evidence assessment of the literature. Rebecca B Costello, Cynthia V Lentino, Courtney C Boyd, Meghan L O’Connell, Cindy C Crawford, Meredith L Sprengel, and Patricia A Deuster. Nutr J. 2014; 13: 106.

Role of the melatonin system in the control of sleep: therapeutic implications. Pandi-Perumal SR, Srinivasan V, Spence DW, Cardinali DP. CNS Drugs. 2007;21(12):995-1018.

Efficacy and safety of exogenous melatonin for secondary sleep disorders and sleep disorders accompanying sleep restriction: meta-analysis. Buscemi N, Vandermeer B, Hooton N, Pandya R, Tjosvold L, Hartling L, Vohra S, Klassen TP, Baker G. BMJ. 2006 Feb 18;332(7538):385-93.

Effect of melatonin in selected populations of sleep-disturbed patients. Brusco LI, Fainstein I, Márquez M, Cardinali DP. Biol Signals Recept. 1999 Jan-Apr;8(1-2):126-31.


Extended Sleep and Sleep Deprivation

The Effects of Sleep Extension on the Athletic Performance of Collegiate Basketball Players. Cheri D. Mah, MS, Kenneth E. Mah, MD, MS, Eric J. Kezirian, MD, MPH, and William C. Dement, MD, PhD. Sleep. 2011 Jul 1; 34(7): 943–950.

Sleep extension improves serving accuracy: A study with college varsity tennis players. Schwartz J, Simon RD Jr. Physiol Behav. 2015 Nov 1;151:541-4.

Sleep Hygiene for Optimizing Recovery in Athletes: Review and Recommendations. Vitale KC, Owens R, Hopkins SR, Malhotra A. Int J Sports Med. 2019 Aug;40(8):535-543.

Optimizing sleep to maximize performance: implications and recommendations for elite athletes. Simpson NS, Gibbs EL, Matheson GO. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2017 Mar;27(3):266-274.

Sleep-Related Issues for Recovery and Performance in Athletes. Kölling S, Duffield R, Erlacher D, Venter R, Halson SL. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2019 Feb 1;14(2):144-148.

The Value of Sleep on Athletic Performance, Injury, and Recovery in the Young Athlete. Copenhaver EA, Diamond AB. Pediatr Ann. 2017 Mar 1;46(3):e106-e111.

Sleep Interventions Designed to Improve Athletic Performance and Recovery: A Systematic Review of Current Approaches. Bonnar D, Bartel K, Kakoschke N, Lang C. Sports Med. 2018 Mar;48(3):683-703.

The impact of extended sleep on daytime alertness, vigilance, and mood. Kamdar BB, Kaplan KA, Kezirian EJ, Dement WC. Sleep Med. 2004 Sep;5(5):441-8.

Sleep Deprivation and Its Contribution to Mood and Performance Deterioration in College Athletes. Bolin DJ. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2019 Aug;18(8):305-310. 

Wake up call for collegiate athlete sleep: narrative review and consensus recommendations from the NCAA Interassociation Task Force on Sleep and Wellness. Kroshus E Wagner J, Wyrick D, Athey A, Bell L, Benjamin HJ, Grandner MA, Kline CE, Mohler JM, Roxanne Prichard J, Watson NF, Hainline B. Br J Sports Med. 2019 Jun;53(12):731-736.

The effect of partial sleep deprivation on weight-lifting performance. Reilly T, Piercy M. Ergonomics. 1994 Jan;37(1):107-15.

Effects of two nights partial sleep deprivation on an evening submaximal weightlifting performance; are 1 h powernaps useful on the day of competition? Brotherton EJ, Moseley SE, Langan-Evans C, Pullinger SA Robertson CM, Burniston JG, Edwards BJ. Chronobiol Int. 2019 Mar;36(3):407-426.

Hormonal responses to exercise after partial sleep deprivation and after a hypnotic drug-induced sleep. Mougin F, Bourdin H, Simon-Rigaud ML, Nguyen NU, Kantelip JP, Davenne D. J Sports Sci. 2001 Feb;19(2):89-97.

Sleep deprivation and the effect on exercise performance. VanHelder T, Radomski MW. Sports Med. 1989 Apr;7(4):235-47.